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Importance of Curriculum | Types of Curriculums | Curriculum Development Process

importance of curriculum

What is Curriculum | Importance of Curriculum to Teachers, Administrators & Students | Curriculum Implementation

What is Curriculum?

Curriculum is a program of planned experiences based on standards in which students practice and develop competency in material and applied to learn abilities.

The curriculum serves as the central guide for all educators in determining what is necessary for teaching and learning in order to provide rigorous academic experiences to every student.

A curriculum’s structure, organization, and considerations are designed to maximize student learning and facilitate instruction.

The curriculum must include the objectives, methods, materials, and assessments necessary to promote instruction and learning effectively.

Different Types of Curriculums

Written Curriculum 

The written curriculum is a lesson plan or syllabus that teachers create. Another example is one developed by curriculum experts in collaboration with subject instructors.

To establish the effectiveness of this type of written curriculum, it should be pilot tested or tried out in sample classrooms.

Recommended Curriculum 

This a type of curriculum that may be recommended and implemented by the Ministry of Education, the Commission on Higher Education, or any other professional group.

For instance, the Department of Education’s or the Commission on Higher Education’s implementation of the curriculum is an example of a recommended curriculum.

In rare instances, a legislative body such as the congress or senate, or a university or school, may suggest a subject, a course, or any academic program judged vital for national identity and security, environmental preservation, or sustainable development, among other reasons.

Taught Curriculum

This is a discussion about the written curriculum’s implementation. Whatever is taught or done in the classroom constitutes a taught curriculum.

Thus, when teachers deliver a lecture, commence group work, or assign pupils to do a laboratory experiment under their supervision, they illustrate the taught curriculum.

 This curriculum incorporates a variety of teaching and learning approaches to meet each student’s unique requirements and interests.

Hidden Curriculum

The term “hidden curriculum” refers to the unplanned or unintentional curriculum but plays a critical role in learning. It is made up of standards, values, and procedures. For more information, see the three-minute video below.

Assessed Curriculum

Here, Exams are required as part of the curriculum assessment process. These evaluations constitute the assessed curriculum when students take a quiz or sit for mid-term and final exams.

Teachers can use pen and paper tests as well as authentic assessments such as portfolios and performance-based evaluations to determine whether or not students are making progress.

Learned Curriculum

This form of curriculum demonstrates the knowledge acquired by the students. Learning outcomes can be used to quantify the competence that students should display at the conclusion of the class.

What pupils can do or do in their cognitive, affective, or psychomotor domains can manifest a learning result.

The exam findings can be used to determine the learning outcome, which students can then accomplish through the use of learning objectives.

Supported Curriculum

The supported curriculum focuses on the written curriculum’s implementation. Whatever is taught or done in the classroom constitutes a taught curriculum.

Thus, when teachers deliver a lecture, commence group work, or assign pupils to do a laboratory experiment under their supervision, they illustrate the taught curriculum.

This curriculum incorporates a variety of teaching and learning approaches to meet each student’s unique requirements and interests.

Importance of Curriculum

A Curriculum Establishes Consistency in Learning (And Teaching).

Internal consistency occurs when students inside your school can anticipate graduating with the same set of skills, regardless of whether their teacher is a seasoned veteran or is still learning the ropes.

Consistency should extend beyond a district, state or province, or country – a fifth-grade student should expect to finish with the same core knowledge and abilities regardless of where they learn.

A Curriculum Facilitates Collaboration.

Regular curriculum talks allow engaging all stakeholders: teachers, administration, parents, and communities.

Obtaining feedback from all stakeholders will assist in determining your strengths and weaknesses. Additionally, it provides a forum for teachers to discuss best practices, information, and resources.

A Curriculum Is Both a Source of And a Reflection of Culture and Identity.

A curriculum, in basic terms, represents the national culture of the country in which a school operates — different countries have varying expectations of their students, even though teaching procedures are comparable.

However, it can also reflect and define school culture, from the unique demands of the neighborhoods they serve to the areas in which you wish to separate yourself.

A Curriculum Saves Money for Schools.

Although textbooks are not inexpensive, they are widely used because they are convenient — they give a pre-built path of knowledge that is difficult for busy teachers to ignore.

With a robust curriculum in place, schools can move away from excessive reliance on textbooks and take a more active and dynamic role in selecting more appropriate (and less expensive) materials.

A Curriculum Establishes Quantifiable Objectives.

Data is critical. If you do not establish precise goals for how your pupils learn, how will you know if your curriculum is effective?

 That is why a well-designed curriculum establishes measurable objectives and tracks students’ progress throughout the year.

Teachers gain a greater understanding of what is happening in their classrooms, kids are informed, and parents are kept informed.

A Curriculum Aids with Teacher Alignment.

Additionally, a strong curriculum connects teachers across grade levels and subject areas in order to examine the big picture of student development.

 Teachers can collaborate to develop a sequence of subjects that build on previous ones and connect across disciplines. As a result? You continually reinforce knowledge and ensure that pupils are prepared for the next step.

A Curriculum Helps Adapts to An Ever-Changing World.

A well-designed curriculum is never a one-and-done endeavor. Regularly revisiting it enables you to assess how things are progressing and make room for new themes that are pertinent today.

 Indeed, the World Economic Forum highlights curriculum as a critical component of educators’ ability to keep up with the rapid changes in trends, technology, and the skills pupils will require in the future.

What is Curriculum Development

Curriculum development can be thought of as a step-by-step procedure for enhancing the quality of courses given in higher education. The world changes, techniques, and profiles evolve, and curriculum are influenced by fresh perspectives on research and vocations.

Curriculum development is the process of curriculum improvement. Curricula have been developed using a variety of ways.

The most frequently used approaches are analysis (e.g., need analysis, task analysis), design (e.g., objective design), selection (e.g., selecting appropriate learning/teaching methods and assessment methods), formation (e.g., formation of the curriculum implementation committee/curriculum evaluation committee), and review (i.e., curriculum review committee)

Curriculum Development Processes

Phase 1: Planning

The planning phase establishes the groundwork for the subsequent stages of curriculum creation. This phase entails the following steps:

Determine the issue/problem/need

Curriculum creation is typically prompted by a concern about a major issue or problem confronting one or more target audiences.

This section discusses several of the issues that must be addressed in order to describe the issue and create a statement that will guide the selection of curriculum development team members.

Additionally, the issue statement defines the scope (what will be included) of the curriculum’s content.

Form Team for Curriculum Development

Once the issue’s nature and scope have been described broadly, the members of the curriculum creation team can be chosen. This section discusses

  • The roles and responsibilities of team members,
  • The process for selecting members of the curriculum development team,
  • Collaboration and teamwork principles. The objective is to develop competence in the areas covered by the curriculum material among the team members and to form an effective team.

Conduct Assessment and Analysis of Needs

The needs assessment procedure is divided into two stages. The first section discusses how to conduct a needs assessment. Numerous strategies are employed in order to ascertain what is required and by whom concerning the identified issue.

This section discusses the KAP – Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey and focus groups and environmental scanning.

The second section of this requirements assessment stage, analysis, discusses how to utilize the data and the findings of the information acquired.

Among the topics covered are methods for identifying gaps between knowledge and practice; trends coming from data; a methodology for prioritizing needs; and identifying the target audience’s characteristics.

Phase II: Content and Methods

Phase II establishes the expected outcomes (what learners will be able to perform as a result of participating in curriculum activities), the content (what will be taught), and the methods (how the information will be taught) (how it will be taught). The following are the steps:

Specify Desired Outcomes

After defining the issue, forming the curriculum team, assessing, analyzing, and prioritizing the needs, the following stage is to refine and restate the issue as necessary and construct the intended outcomes or educational objectives.

 The anticipated outcome of a curriculum activity describes what the learner will be able to perform due to participation in the activities.

This section defines intended results, a breakdown of intended outcomes into their parts (condition, performance, and standards), examples of intended outcomes, and a summary of learning behaviors.

The Addendum contains a more detailed discussion of the types and levels of learning behaviors and examples of anticipated outcomes from FAO population education resources.

Choose Content 

The next step in the curriculum-building process is to choose content that will make a significant difference in the learner’s life and, ultimately, society’s life.

At this point, the major concerns are as follows: “What will the learner need to know to achieve the desired outcome? Which competencies, abilities, attitudes, and behaviors must be acquired and practiced?”

Additionally, the scope (abundance of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and behaviors) and sequence (order) of the content are discussed.

The Addendum section discusses the intended outcomes of population education in relation to content subjects as an illustration and application of how intended outcomes are linked to content.

Develop Experiential Techniques

Following the selection of information, the next stage is to develop activities (learning experiences) that will assist the learner in achieving the specified results.

This section discusses an experiential learning model and its components (experience, share, process, generalize, and apply).

Additionally, there are sections on:

  • Learning styles and acceptable activities for each kind;
  • A list of activity categories (with descriptions);
  • An activity design worksheet for facilitators;
  • Brief comments on learning environments and delivery mechanisms.

Phase III: Implementation

Produce Curriculum Materials

After agreement on the content and experience methods, the actual manufacturing of curriculum materials begins. This section contains suggestions for

  • Locating and analyzing existing materials
  • Establishing evaluation criteria
  • Developing curriculum materials.

Evaluate and Refine the Curriculum

This step makes recommendations for testing locations and conducting formative evaluations of curriculum materials during the manufacturing process. There is a sample assessment form included.

Identify and develop facilitators.

It is a waste of resources to design curricular materials if facilitators are not adequately trained to implement them. A typical three-day training session includes suggestions for selecting qualified facilitators.

Carry out curriculum

Without planning, it is doubtful that freshly generated curriculum materials will be implemented effectively. This stage discusses strategies for promoting and utilizing the curriculum.

Phase IV:  Evaluation & Reporting

Formulate Strategies for Evaluation

Evaluation is both a phase and a step in the concept of curriculum development. During the curriculum creation process, two forms of evaluation are used: formative and summative.

Formative assessments are utilized throughout the requirements analysis, product development, and testing processes.

Summative evaluations are conducted to assess and report on the curriculum’s outcomes. This stage discusses evaluation methodologies and proposes straightforward procedures for generating valid and trustworthy data.

The summative evaluation process is guided by a series of questions, and an example evaluation format is offered.

Reporting and Resource Securing

“Delivering the payoff” is the final component of an evaluation process (i.e., getting the results into the hands of people who can use them).

This step includes recommendations on what and how to report to key stakeholders, including financial and policy decision-makers, as well as a brief discussion of how to acquire extra financing for programs.

The Importance of Curriculum Development

Curriculum development cannot be understated. A curriculum is a framework that provides the basis for teaching and learning. It is necessary to develop curricula because they provide guidelines and frameworks for teachers on teaching students at different stages of their education.

 The curriculum development process includes planning, implementing, and evaluating the curricula that are used in an educational institution.

One cannot have a successful educational institution without understanding how important it is to have effective curriculum development procedures in place.

 If for nothing else, good curriculum development is essential in order to improve student retention.

As students progress through the years of their education, retention rates tend to decrease. This can be attributed to the loss of interest in learning and a lack of resources that can be used to guide a student through their education.

 A curriculum that effectively guides students through their education will also serve as a basis for ensuring that students learn what they should and are exposed to what they need when it comes to different subjects.

The process of curriculum development is an important part of ensuring that an educational institution provides students with the knowledge necessary for them to develop a strong foundation in their learning.

 To fully realize the importance of curriculum development, one must first determine if there are any problems associated with the current curriculum and how they can be resolved to propel students forward.

 You cannot just ignore problems in your educational system and hope that everything will work out fine. Problems will grow and become larger over time as time goes on.

You must first address problems head-on in order to fix them, and they should be fixed before they get out of hand.

It is, however, important to avoid over-correction. One should not over-correct something that does not need correcting because this will result in a waste of time and energy.

You do not want to spend time doing something that you are not even sure you need to do, and this is why it is essential to collect data before making any corrections properly.

Before you make any corrections for curriculum development, you should first establish the number of resources that students are currently using to determine if there is a need for an increase in resources.

You should also determine the type of learning that takes place inside your educational institution because this will allow you to detect problems before they manifest themselves.

You must understand what it is that your students learn from their curriculum and learn how these things are being taught and evaluated.

Everyone has a different learning style. This means that how students learn can also vary from person to person. This makes it important to write separate curricula for all students to ensure that they are taught the same thing at all times.

It is, therefore, essential for curriculum development to follow the guidelines set forth by professional associations such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

Some of the things that one must consider in developing a curriculum include how students learn, how they are being taught, what resources they need to undertake their learning, and what they are actually learning.

You should also ensure that you have considered all students who will be using the curriculum, including students with learning disabilities.

Importance of Curriculum to Teachers

A perfectly designed curriculum gives teachers, students, directors as well as community stakeholders with a measurable plan for turning in a great education.

The curriculum identifies the concept to know outcomes, requirements, and core advantages that college students should exhibit earlier than advancing to the next level.

Teachers play a key position in developing, implementing, assessing, and editing the curriculum. An evidence-based curriculum acts as a street map for instructors and college students to comply with on the course to tutorial success.

A school’s curriculum informs teachers what competencies need to be taught at every grade stage to eventually put together college students for postsecondary schooling or a job.

Understanding the huge photograph helps instructors align the studying targets of their curriculum with the school’s curriculum.

In the absence of a curriculum, instructors wouldn’t be aware of whether or not college students are constructing a strong basis to assist studying at the subsequent level.

 

Importance of Assessment

Importance of Curriculum to Administrators?

Administrators observe a special curriculum to assist college students in reap nation and countrywide requirements of educational performance.

Schools can lose public funding if college students fall considerably at the back of friends at greater-performing schools.

The curriculum ensures that every faculty is educating college student’s applicable cloth and monitoring the growth of college students from all sorts of backgrounds.

Importance of Curriculum to Students?

A curriculum plan for college students is a sequence of publications and duties that should be correctly performed to grasp a problem and earn a diploma or degree.

Students may also be extra prompted to determine why certain topics are taught in the curriculum.

A curriculum reassures college students that they’re on the proper music to accomplishing their dreams and honing preferred skills.

In addition to educating college students on tutorial skills, the curriculum is additionally meant to instruct college students on the significance of responsibility, tough work, and accountable citizenship.

Teachers in partnership with mother and father and neighborhood individuals collaborate on improving a curriculum that will instill persona in college students and strengthen fantastic behavior.

For college students with getting to know disabilities, typical evaluation techniques such as formalized, periodic checking out might also do not supply a correct reflection of pupil development and mastery of skills.

Curriculum-based assessment, additionally known as Curriculum-Based Measurement or Progress Monitoring Assessment, in which unique benchmarks of development are described and assessed on a regular and ongoing groundwork in the classroom.

 

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